Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve
It was established in 1976 and designated as Ramsar site in 1987. This is the first Ramsar site Of Nepal. It is protected area of Eastern Nepal and covers 175 suqare kilometer of wetlands. The elevation range is from 75 – 81 meter. Approximately 70 % of the reserve land area is covered in grasslands. Koshi is far the most important wetland staging post for migratory warders and waterfowl in Nepal & was considered one of the most important in Asia. The reserve contains Nepal’s last population of Asian Buffalo a globally threatened species other globally threatened species include Gangaes River Dolphin, Nilgai, Smooth Coated Otter, Asiatic Elephant, Gharial & Muggar Crocodile.
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is supposed to be one of the finest bird sanctuaries in Asia and it is listed in Ramsar site.The large numbers of 497 bird species has been recorded in Koshi Tappu & Barrage area. Swamp Florican, Bengal Florican, Lesser Florican, Black headed Ibis, Bristled Grassbird, Baer’s Pochard, Palla’s Fish Eagle, Imperial Eagle, and especially important for wetland and grassland species. 2oo species of fish have been recorded most of which are resident , 2 Toad Species, 9 Frog species, 6 lizard species, 5 snake species, 11 Turtle species, 31 species of Mammals.
Chitawan National Park
The first National park of Nepal’s is Chitawan National park. It was established in1973. It covers 932 square kilometer. In 1984 UNESCO declared the park a world heritage site because of its importance as global biodiversity reserve. Its elevation range is from 100 – 815 meters. Approximately 70 % of the park is covered by Sal forest.
The Chitawan National Park is home is the habitat of 550 species of birds: Resident and migratory as many as two third of Nepal’s globally threatened in Chitawan. Great Hornbill and Asian Paradise Flycatcher are most exotic bird of Chitawan. The site is especially important for several grassland species including Bengal Florican, Slender – billed Babbler, Lesser Adjutant, Grey Crowned Prinia etc.56 species of mammals : Bengal Tiger, Greater One – honed Rhinoceros, Wild Boar, Asiatic Elephant, Gaur, Sambar, Spotted Deer, Hog Deer, Barking Deer, Serow, Wild Dog, Leopard, Leopard Cat, Jungle Cat, Marbled Cat, Clouded Leopard, Sloth Bear, Rhesus Macaque, Common Langur, Yellow – throated Martin etc. 49 species of Amphibians and Reptiles: King Kobra, Common Cobra, Indian Python Rat Snake etc. 2 kinds of Crocodile: Marsh Mugger and Gharial, 4 species of Tortoises, 150 species of Butterfly, 126 species of Fishes, 570 species of overall plants.
The birthplace of Buddha, the sacred area of Lumbini is one of the holiest places of one of the world’s great religions and its remains contain important evidence about the nature of Buddhist pilgrimage centers from very early period. In 1997 Lumbini was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The farmlands, forest scrub, wetlands and grasslands are an especially important refuge for wildlife. Elevation range is 95 to 1219 meters.
Lumbini has the best known population of the globally threatened Sarus Crane in Nepal and is the only known site in the country where the species breeds regularly.
Mammals species found here are Nilgai, Smooth – coated Otter, Striped Hyaena, Golden Jackal, Bengal Fox, Yellow – throated Martin, Chital, Leopard amongst others.
Birds to see at Lumbini
Sarus Crane, the tallest of the all the flying birds, Pallas’s Fish Eagle, White – rumped Vulture, Slender – billed Vulture, Black – headed Ibis, Painted Stork, Lesser Adjutant, Hodgson’s Bushchat, Bristle Grassbird, Grey Heron, Water Cock, Pheasant – tailed Jacana, Eurasian Marsh Harrier, Blue - tailed Bee – eater, Grey Hornbill, Asian Paradise Flycatcher, Black – rumped Flameback, Eurasian eagle Owl amongst others.
Bardiya National Park
It is situated in southwest Nepal. This national park is by far largest wilderness area in lowland of Nepal. Bardia was declared National Park in 1982. Before was established as hunting reserved in 1976 and later transformed in Royal Karnali Wildlife Reserve. The Park occupied an area of 968 square kilometer and bufferzone are covers 507 km2. Elevation range is 152 to 1441 meter of Churia hills. The major rivers of the park are Babai and Geruwa. About 70 % of the park covered by Sal Shorea robusta Forest, there are also riverine forest of Khair Acacia catechu and Sisoo Dalbergia sissoo in lowlands. The other main habitats of the park is grassland and savanna.
A total of 426 species of birds has been recorded in the national Park including 11 globally threatended. Bengal Florican, Lesser Florican, Silver eared Mesia, Sarus Crane, Great Hornbill amongst others. A total of 37 species of mammals has been recorded in Park including globally threatened species of wildlife include the Ganges River Dolphin, Asiatic wild Dog, Smooth – coated Otter, Bengal Tiger, Nilgai, Greater One – horned Rhinoceros ( has been re – introduced from Chitawan and now more than 50 individuals survive here ). Several varieties of reptiles and water animals, Gharial Crocodile and Marsh Mugger Crocodile, the fresh water Gangetic dolphin is also commonly seen in river Karnali the Nepal’s largest river.
Shuklaphanta National Park
It is lies in the extreme southwest of the terai in Kanchanpur district. Established in 1969 the reserve occupies an area of 305 square kilometers. Grassland apart different vegetations provide shelter to various other fauna. Sal trees dominate the forests while Khair, sissoo forests are found along the riverside. There are four small lakes which add significantly to the reserve’s biodiversity. Elevation range is from 150 to 600 meters.
Around 373 species of birds have been recorded Sarus Crane, Bengal Florican, Swamp Florican, Grass Owl, Hodgson’s Bushchat, Finn’s Weaver, Bristled Grassbird, Jerdon’s Babbler amongst others. A total of 30 species of mammals has been recorded including Bengal Tiger, Asian Elephant, Hispid Hare, Smooth – coated Otter, Nilgai, Swamp Deer, Greater – One horned Rhinoceros.The park also has a healthy population of Mugger crocodile and Indian Python. Suklaphanta National Park supports the largest population of the nominate race of Swamp Deer, Barasingha Cervus duvaucelii duvaucelii in the world.
Kathmandu is a paradise for bird – watchers and one of the most rewarding places in Nepal for spotting and study. So far more than 500 species have been recorded in the Kathmandu, and it is not uncommon for an experienced group of ornithologists to identify a hundred species in the course of a single day.
The wide variety of habitat and altitude in the valley make even casual bird watching particularly rewarding. Kathmandu has a huge variation in altitude within a short lateral distance 1300 meter to 2800 meter. Fast flowing forest streams, remaining lakes, farmlands and forests are main habitat for birds. Residents, winter visitors, summer visitors, passage migrants and vagrants birds can observe in Kathmandu.
|Duration||14 Days 13 Nights|
|Location||Koshi – Chitawan – Lumbini – Bardiya – Shuklaphanta - Kathmandu|
|When to Visit||November to May|